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Authentic, hand-made parfleche ornament

Authentic, hand-made parfleche ornament


and-made by our youth, these ornaments reflect the importance of horses to the Sioux culture.  With the release of the horse to the Americas, this single event transformed the livelihood of the indigenous people of the Western Hemisphere.


According to our own Waniyetu Wowapi "Winter Count” In 1709 -1710, the Dakota captured a horse from the Umonhon people. This horse had its tail wrapped in red material and had eagle feathers hanging down off its tail. This was the first time we have seen this four legged relative. The name Ta Sunka Wakan, "sacred dog", was bestowed upon this relative- its name explaining, describing, and acknowledging this four legged relative.


The Lakota created horse designs explaining what had happened outside of the village. The symbols were painted on the horses by dipping ones finger into a vegetable-dye, natural paint pigment combined with a buffalo/bear fat mixture.

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